CSIR


                                                                     
                                  CSIR FAQs,CSIR SYLLABUS and APPLICATION PROCEDURE



CSIR FAQs

How can CSIR help me to begin my research career? 

CSIR provides Junior Research Fellowship in various fields of Science & Technology and Medical Sciences. If you are a bright postgraduate with an intense desire to do good science, the EMR Division, HRD Group, CSIR would be delighted to hear from you.

Keep your eyes open for all-India press advertisements that are published twice a year inviting applications. Just fill in the prescribed application form and send the completed application form to the Controller of Examinations, Examination Unit, CSIR Complex Building, Opp. Institute of Hotel Management, Pusa, New Delhi –110 012. Also visit HRDG for details.
 How is the National Eligibility Test structured?

The Selection for award of JRF is made on the basis of a competitive written test called the National Eligibility Test (NET), conducted by CSIR at national level and consisting of two papers. Paper – 1 is objective type consisting of Part (A) general nature and part (B) is subject type. It tests the mental ability and broad awareness of scientific knowledge. You may choose the second paper from amongst (1) Chemical Sciences (2) Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary Sciences (3) Life Sciences, (4) Mathematical Sciences and (5) Physical Sciences. For the second paper you will need to give short descriptive answers.

 Usually examinations are held for a day on the third Sunday in June and December, each year.

For more details visit: HRDG
 How will I know if I have cleared the National Eligibility Test?

Don’t worry, all candidates who qualify in the test will be informed individually after the results are finalised. Results are also posted on the Internet. Visit:HRDG
 What are the qualifications needed for NET?

Junior Research Fellowships are awarded each year by CSIR to those holding MSc or equivalent degree, with minimum 55% marks after qualifying the National Eligibility Test. Please visit HRDG for details.
   What are the minimum requirements I must have to join as Scientist or Group IV staff?

The minimum requirement is a First Class M.Sc./B. Tech. And you must not be over 35 years. All reservations that are in force for all entitled categories as per Government of India rules apply.
 What is the expected salary at entry level Scientist post?

The basic salary for Scientist B or Group IV(1) is Rs. 8000-275-13500.

And a senior Scientist i.e., Scientist G or Group IV (6) would be in the basic pay scale of Rs. 18400-500-22400.  
 What are the different every day technologies or items that we use in which CSIR has played a role?

You would be amazed to know about the many items of daily use that CSIR has helped develop. Its contribution extends to almost all fields of human activity, be it agriculture, health, defence, aero- dynamics, genetic engineering and the development of India's first super computer. Eleven of the 14 new drugs developed in independent India are from CSIR.

The entire list would be too long so here is merely a sample. Amul baby food, Nutan stove, Saheli a nonsteroidal once-a-week oral contraceptive pill for women, E-mal for resistant malaria, Asmon, a herbal therapeutic for asthma, SARAS, a multi-role aircraft, Flosolver India's first parallel computer; Swaraj and Sonalika tractors, and the indelible ink that is the mark of a proud Indian voter, are gifts of CSIR to the nation.

No wonder CSIR is recognized as one of the world's largest knowledge enterprises
 What was the second battle of Haldighati in which CSIR was involved?

The “second battle of Haldighati,” is what the media dubbed a pioneering case in a "rule-based" war in the context of what India felt was a wrongly granted US   patent on the use of turmeric for wound healing.

The rule is that the applicant has a right to patent innovations only after demonstrating the novelty, non-obviousness and usefulness of an article. The use of turmeric for wound healing is not novel because it is a part of India’s prior knowledge as recorded in ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts and formal papers in journals such as The Indian Journal of Medical Research, etc. 

CSIR followed the recognized legal procedures and proved to the US Patent Office that such use of turmeric in wound healing was clearly the consequence of prior knowledge. The US Patent Office scrapped the patent. India won that particular battle.
 What is the CSIR Programme on Bioactives? 

The CSIR Programme on Bioactives is a mammoth network programme being coordinated by the R&D Planning Division (RDPD), CSIR. It engages 20 CSIR laboratories, 13 universities and three well-known organizations in the traditional system of medicine. It involves screening of Ayurvedic formulations, plants, fungi, microbes and insects against 14 disease areas including cancer, tuberculosis, filaria, malaria, ulcer, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer diseases, to identify new lead molecules.

Work is being pursued in a well-coordinated manner with different dedicated groups carrying out well-defined tasks. For example, The Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (previously known as RRL, Jammu) is the Nodal laboratory for investigation of all the Unani drugs. Its activities are to participate in and coordinate plant collection, authentication, and finger printing. It also participates in and coordinates the biological activities such as profiling of the extract to evaluate anticancer activity (in vitro cytotoxicity), and immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective (both in vivo and in vitro) activities of the samples prepared by the participating institutes.  
 The world is turning to herbal medicines. Is CSIR also part of the movement?

Certainly! The Herbal Therapeutics programme of CSIR involves efforts to develop herbal preparations as therapeutics. These herbal preparations are being developed only after conducting all the appropriate studies, viz. standardization, biological activity validation, safety, efficacy and clinical studies.  Products developed would be then introduced as therapeutics in the Indian and the foreign markets.  The CSIR collaboration with the AVS and CCRUM is a major initiative in this direction. 
 Is CSIR also looking at our marine resources as a source for therapeutic products?  

As a leading S&T organization of a nation rich in marine bounty, CSIR is also investigating our oceans. An all India coordinated project ‘Drugs from the Sea’ funded by Department of Ocean Development, Government of India, and coordinated by the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, is being conducted in collaboration with 10 participating laboratories for exploiting marine flora and fauna for development of drugs as well as herbal remedies.  The programme covers all aspects of drug research including isolation of active molecules, their characterization and development.  Several promising samples have been found.  
 Healthcare is one of the primary concerns of the average citizen.  What are the ailments that CSIR is targeting in particular?  

Asthma

A mission mode programme on asthma has been launched for finding a cure for this disease following the realization of CSIR’s role as a nodal player in the field due to the existing expertise in its allergy group and promise shown by its herbal medicine (Asmon) developed by the Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata.  Studies carried out by CSIR have already led to significant increase in the understanding of the disease viz., atopic nature of asthma, identification, purification and characterization of allergic proteins, identification of T-cell epitopes of allergens, development of in vitro screening procedure using human endothelial cell adhesion molecules, identification of the human lung surfactant proteins in respiratory disorders, identification of SNPs in few candidate genes for asthma, development and a mouse model of asthma.

The future studies envisaged include an integrated, networked and focused mission aiming at (i) development of therapeutic modalities using SPD and SPA; reversal of TH2 and TH1, response identification of lead molecules by in vitro and in vivo model, (ii) a broad sample collection of affected population, validation of genes involved, studies on gene polymorphism, identification of molecular markers, interactions expressive genes with other genes, determination of the genetic basis of asthma.

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is one of the most common dermatological diseases affecting around 2 per cent of the world population but its cause and pathogenesis are not clearly understood. Most importantly no preventive/curative therapy exists for psoriasis except the symptomatic management.

Based on the traditional knowledge, the development of a single plant based oral herbal formulation was initiated under NMITLI for making it globally acceptable.  The project is being led by Lupin Laboratories as the industry partner.  Extensive studies comprising fingerprinting, activity guided fractionation, efficacy studies, toxicology, safety pharmacology, pharmaco-kinetics and toxico-kinetics enabled the filing of an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for the first time in the country.  The estimated market for psoriasis therapeutics is around 4 billion and the development will enable India to capture a significant part of the market.

Latent Tuberculosis

Worldwide, around two billion people are infected with M. tuberculosis.  Nearly, 8 million new cases are added annually and the biggest burden is in South East Asia. Around 3 million deaths owing to tuberculosis (TB) are reported every year and India accounts for a substantial percentage. With the rampant Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), TB is reaching almost epidemic proportions. It kills one in three people co-infected with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, TB is a major barrier to economic development, costing India over Rs. 12,000 crore a year. Considering these aspects CSIR through the NMITLI scheme supported a project entitled  “Latent M. tuberculosis:  New targets, drug delivery systems and Bio-enhancers and therapeutics” in the year 2001. Significant success has been achieved in the project.  

An IND for a new pharmacophore for the treatment of tuberculosis has been filed.  This is the first success achieved in developing a new tuberculosis therapeutic in the last 40 years globally.  The molecule, Sudoterb, works through combination therapy (compatible with the present drugs), is less toxic, clears the total infection within two months and no recurrence has been observed. It fits well into the present four-drug therapy by replacing one or two drugs from the present cocktail.  Some new drug targets have also been developed along with a novel drug delivery system.
 What are CSIR’s successes in the field of Bioinformatics?

BioSuite

Eighteen research institutes and three industries, were brought together to develop the comprehensive, portable and versatile software package christened ‘BioSuite’. Led by TCS, the team has developed the software, which will serve as a multipurpose tool for carrying out diverse bioanalyses ranging from gene analysis to comparative genomics, pathway modeling to homology modeling and molecular visualization & manipulation to drug designing.  The software has several unique features, which are not present in similar other packages available in the market.  BioSuite comprises eight modules involving 114 sub modules and 243 algorithms.  

SofComp  

The NMITLI project entitled, "Cost effective Simple Office Computing (SofComp) platform to replace PC" sought to develop platform technology based on Linux.  The Simple Office Computers (SofComp) are thus based on a System-on-Chip architecture with a high degree of integration and several innovative features. 
 The Mashelkar Committee has submitted its report on the National Auto Fuel Policy. What more is CSIR doing?

The Auto Fuel Policy drafted under the Chairmanship of Dr R. A. Mashelkar, has paved the way for laying Indian standards for auto emissions and thus moving towards meeting the global settings in the domain.  The standards ‘Bharat II, III & IV’ will come into force in phases as per the road map evolved. Improvement in fuel quality is the prime need in addition to changes required in auto engines, use of catalytic converters, etc. 

Under a NMITLI supported programme, effort has been initiated to help improve fuel quality and a novel catalyst has been developed.  The catalyst has remarkable efficiency for desulfurizing diesel, obtained from the first stage of an HDS unit with sulphur (S) content of about 2500 ppm to less than 50 ppm. It performs at the typical refinery process conditions, i.e., < 340ยบ C and 40-bar pressure. The catalyst developed is even active at 30-bar pressure.  The development would be of immense help in providing quality diesel as per Bharat III to IV emission standards.  Efforts are on to identify a refinery to test the catalyst in plant environment.
 What is TKDL? 

The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) is a collaborative project with the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.  The main objective of this network project is to prevent misappropriation of India’s rich heritage of traditional knowledge.  India has had unsavoury experience of noting the grant of wrong patents on turmeric by USPTO and neem by EPO.  These patents were successfully challenged by India and revoked in an expensive and time-consuming process.

The TKDL database provides an easily accessible and retrievable source for patent examiners to verify claims relating to traditional knowledge. The First phase of TKDL-Ayurveda presents information and images gleaned from 14 Ayurvedic texts and transcribed in five international languages -- English, German, French, Spanish and Japanese, using an innovative IT software. Over 36,000 formulations have been transcribed in patent application format. Currently work is in progress on the second phase, which will cover Unani, Siddha, and the residual work on Ayurveda. TKDL-Unani will cover 77,000 formulations.

TKDL has been able to set international specifications and standards for setting up of TK databases and registries based on TKDL specifications. This was presented at the fourth session of Intergovernmental Committee (IGC) of WIPO on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Expression of Folklore. The Technical Standards presented by India were adopted by the Committee in the fifth session of the IGC.

TKDL has been heralded as a model for other countries for protecting their Traditional Knowledge from misappropriation, and many countries are seeking collaboration with CSIR in this area.  
 What are Saras’s specifications?

Saras is a 14-seater twin-engined turboprop aircraft fully pressurized for passenger comfort. It has a maximum speed of over 600 km/h and a maximum range of 1200 km. Its state-of-the-art avionics, electrical, environmental control and other systems make it a contemporary aircraft of the 21st century
 What role did CSIR play in the Tsunami crisis?

The CSIR efforts at Tsunami relief have been timely, multi-faceted and large. A number of CSIR laboratories rose above the occasion to offer their scientific and technical skills and resources to mitigate the sufferings of the survivors. The offers and initiatives include shelter, food, drinking water, and ongoing studies that in future would improve our knowledge and skills to deal with such disasters.

CFTRI, Mysore, took upon itself the mission of providing food to the survivors. It undertook the largest production of instant food in its history. More than two tonnes of food was sent daily to the affected areas for about seven days to cater to about 50,000 to one lakh meals. Food items even took into account culinary preferences of the local people and the special nutritional requirements of children.

CSMCRI, Bhavnagar, provided drinking water supply in the affected areas by reverse osmosis process.

CBRI, Roorkee, rushed a team of scientists to the affected areas.  It is poised to provide backup support in rehabilitating devastated areas by providing pragmatic solutions to the repair and retrofit of existing infrastructure.

SERC, Chennai, has proposed to help the survivors in structural assessment of damaged buildings and would suggest repairs/remedial measures.

NIO scientists are working on a system to detect earthquakes below the ocean floor.

NGRI’s Seismological Observatory recorded the earthquake and its after-shocks. It continues to monitor the area and provides information so that appropriate action may be taken and loss to life and property minimised.


CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research
Fellowship and Lecturer-ship
SYLLABUS FOR
LIFE SCIENCES
PAPER I AND PAPER II

1. MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO BIOLOGY
A. Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds.
B. Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids,
proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins).
C. Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding,
hydrophobic interaction, etc.).
D. Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics,
thermodynamics, colligative properties).
E. Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group
transfer, biological energy transducers.
F. Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation,
mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes.
G. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary, tertiary and quaternary
structure; domains; motif and folds).
H. Conformation of nucleic acids (A-, B-, Z-,DNA), t-RNA, micro-RNA).
I. Stability of protein and nucleic acid structures.
J. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and vitamins.
2. CELLULAR ORGANIZATION
A. Membrane structure and function: Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer
and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, ion pumps,
mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of
membranes.
B. Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles: Cell wall, nucleus,
mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids,
vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility.
C. Organization of genes and chromosomes: Operon, interrupted genes, gene families,
structure of chromatin and chromosomes, unique and repetitive DNA, heterochromatin,
euchromatin, transposons.
D. Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, and
control of cell cycle.
E. Microbial Physiology: Growth, yield and characteristics, strategies of cell division,
stress response.
3. FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES
A. DNA replication, repair and recombination: Unit of replication, enzymes involved,
replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal
replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms.
B. RNA synthesis and processing: Transcription factors and machinery, formation of
initiation complex, transcription activators and repressors, RNA polymerases, capping,
elongation and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, polyadenylation,
structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport.
C. Protein synthesis and processing: Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation
factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code,
aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, translational
proof-reading, translational inhibitors, post- translational modification of proteins.
D. Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level: Regulation of
phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, role of chromatin in
regulating gene expression and gene silencing.
4. CELL COMMUNICATION AND CELL SIGNALING
A. Host parasite interaction: Recognition and entry processes of different
pathogens like bacteria, viruses into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host
cell behavior by pathogens, virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced
diseases in animals and plants, cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.
B. Cell signaling: Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling
through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second
messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component
signaling systems, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.
C. Cellular communication: Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell
communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap
junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.
D. Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor
genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of
cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled
cell growth.
E. Innate and adaptive immune system: Cells and molecules involved in innate
and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell
epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules, generation of antibody
diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody
interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and
differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cellmediated
immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the
complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions,
inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during
bacterial (tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital
and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.
5. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
A. Basic concepts of development: Potency, commitment, specification, induction,
competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate
and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic
determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development.
B. Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes,
cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac
development and double fertilization in plants; zygote formation, cleavage,
blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in
animals; embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation
and germination.
C. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Cell aggregation and
differentiation in Dictyostelium; axes and pattern formation in Drosophila,
amphibia and chick; organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans;
eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates;
differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development-larval formation,
metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex
determination.
D. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root
apical meristem; shoot and root development; leaf development and phyllotaxy;
transition to flowering, floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis
and Antirrhinum.
E. Programmed cell death, aging and senescence.
6. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY - PLANT
A. Photosynthesis: Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport;
photoprotective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways.
B. Respiration and photorespiration: Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial
electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory
pathway.
C. Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid
biosynthesis.
D. Plant hormones: Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological
effects and mechanisms of action.
E. Sensory photobiology: Structure, function and mechanisms of action of
phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement;
photoperiodism and biological clocks.
F. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation: Uptake, transport and
translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells,
across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of
loading and unloading of photoassimilates.
G. Secondary metabolites - Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous
compounds and their roles.
H. Stress physiology: Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and
abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses; mechanisms of resistance to biotic
stress and tolerance to abiotic stress
7. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY - ANIMAL
A. Blood and circulation: Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis and formed elements,
plasma function, blood volume, blood volume regulation, blood groups,
haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis.
B. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic
heart, specialized tissue, ECG – its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart
as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above.
C. Respiratory system: Comparison of respiration in different species, anatomical
considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural
and chemical regulation of respiration.
D. Nervous system: Neurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and
spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone
and posture.
E. Sense organs: Vision, hearing and tactile response.
F. Excretory system: Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine
formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of
water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, acid-base
balance.
G. Thermoregulation: Comfort zone, body temperature – physical, chemical, neural
regulation, acclimatization.
H. Stress and adaptation
I. Digestive system: Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR.
J. Endocrinology and reproduction: Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of
hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes, neuroendocrine
regulation.
8. INHERITANCE BIOLOGY
A. Mendelian principles: Dominance, segregation, independent assortment, deviation
from Mendelian inheritance.
B. Concept of gene: Allele, multiple alleles, pseudoallele, complementation tests.
C. Extensions of Mendelian principles: Codominance, incomplete dominance, gene
interactions, pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy,
linkage and crossing over, sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced characters.
D. Gene mapping methods: Linkage maps, tetrad analysis, mapping with molecular
markers, mapping by using somatic cell hybrids, development of mapping population
in plants.
E. Extra chromosomal inheritance: Inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes,
maternal inheritance.
F. Microbial genetics: Methods of genetic transfers – transformation, conjugation,
transduction and sex-duction, mapping genes by interrupted mating, fine structure
analysis of genes.
G. Human genetics: Pedigree analysis, lod score for linkage testing, karyotypes, genetic
disorders.
H. Quantitative genetics: Polygenic inheritance, heritability and its measurements, QTL
mapping.
I. Mutation: Types, causes and detection, mutant types – lethal, conditional,
biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal verses somatic mutants,
insertional mutagenesis.
J. Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes: Deletion, duplication,
inversion, translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications.
K. Recombination: Homologous and non-homologous recombination, including
transposition, site-specific recombination.
9. DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS
A. Principles and methods of taxonomy:Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa,
biological nomenclature, classical and quantititative methods of taxonomy of
plants, animals and microorganisms.
B. Levels of structural organization: Unicellular, colonial and multicellular
forms; levels of organization of tissues, organs and systems; comparative
anatomy.
C. Outline classification of plants, animals and microorganisms:Important
criteria used for classification in each taxon; classification of plants, animals and
microorganisms; evolutionary relationships among taxa.
D. Natural history of Indian subcontinent: Major habitat types of the
subcontinent, geographic origins and migrations of species; common Indian
mammals, birds; seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent.
E. Organisms of health and agricultural importance: Common parasites and
pathogens of humans, domestic animals and crops.
10. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
A. The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic
interactions.
B. Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap;
fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
C. Population ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves;
population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of
metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured
populations.
D. Species interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory,
carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.
E. Community ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes;
levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.
F. Ecological succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession;
concept of climax.
G. Ecosystem: Structure and function; energy flow and mineral cycling (CNP); primary
production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems:
terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, eustarine).
H. Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography;
biogeographical zones of India.
I. Applied ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change;
biodiversity-status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity
change; biodiversity management approaches.
J. Conservation biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to
management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project
Tiger, Biosphere reserves).
11. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR
A. Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation,
adaptation, struggle, fitness and natural selection; Mendelism; spontaneity of
mutations; the evolutionary synthesis.
B. Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules;
abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers; concept of Oparin and
Haldane; experiment of Miller (1953); the first cell; evolution of prokaryotes;
origin of eukaryotic cells; evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; anaerobic
metabolism, photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism.
C. Paleontology and evolutionary history: The evolutionary time scale; eras,
periods and epoch; major events in the evolutionary time scale; origins of
unicellular and multicellular organisms; major groups of plants and animals;
stages in primate evolution including Homo.
D. Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution, molecular divergence and
molecular clocks; molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification;
protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; gene
duplication and divergence.
E. The Mechanisms: Population genetics – populations, gene pool, gene
frequency; Hardy-Weinberg law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency
through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift; adaptive radiation
and modifications; isolating mechanisms; speciation; allopatricity and
sympatricity; convergent evolution; sexual selection; co-evolution.
F. Brain, Behavior and Evolution: Approaches and methods in study of
behavior; proximate and ultimate causation; altruism and evolution-group
selection, kin selection, reciprocal altruism; neural basis of learning, memory,
cognition, sleep and arousal; biological clocks; development of behavior; social
communication; social dominance; use of space and territoriality; mating
systems, parental investment and reproductive success; parental care; aggressive
behavior; habitat selection and optimality in foraging; migration, orientation and
navigation; domestication and behavioral changes.
12. APPLIED BIOLOGY:
A. Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules.
B. Application of immunological principles (vaccines, diagnostics). tissue
and cell culture methods for plants and animals.
C. Transgenic animals and plants, molecular approaches to diagnosis and
strain identification.
D. Genomics and its application to health and agriculture, including gene
therapy.
E. Bioresource and uses of biodiversity.
F. Breeding in plants and animals, including marker – assisted selection.
G. Bioremediation and phytoremediation.
H. Biosensors.
13. METHODS IN BIOLOGY
A. Molecular biology and recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification
of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation
methods; analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel
electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing gels; molecular cloning of DNA or RNA
fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems; expression of recombinant
proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors; isolation of specific nucleic
acid sequences; generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage,
cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors; in vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques,
gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms; protein sequencing
methods, detection of post-translation modification of proteins; DNA sequencing
methods, strategies for genome sequencing; methods for analysis of gene
expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression analysis, such as
micro array based techniques; isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate
and lipid molecules; RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques
B. Histochemical and immunotechniques: Antibody generation, detection of
molecules using ELISA, RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, floweytometry
and immunofluorescence microscopy, detection of molecules in living cells,
in situ localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH.
C. Biophysical methods: Analysis of biomolecules using UV/visible, fluorescence,
circular dichroism, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, structure determination using
X-ray diffraction and NMR; analysis using light scattering, different types
of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods.
D. Statistical Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal; probability
distributions (Binomial, Poisson and normal); sampling distribution; difference
between parametric and non-parametric statistics; confidence interval; errors;
levels of significance; regression and correlation; t-test; analysis of variance; X2
test;; basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics, etc.
E. Radiolabeling techniques: Properties of different types of radioisotopes
normally used in biology, their detection and measurement; incorporation of
radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells, molecular imaging of radioactive
material, safety guidelines.
F. Microscopic techniques: Visulization of cells and subcellular components by
light microscopy, resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of
living cells, scanning and transmission microscopes, different fixation and
staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze-fracture methods for EM,
image processing methods in microscopy.
G. Electrophysiological methods: Single neuron recording, patch-clamp recording,
ECG, Brain activity recording, lesion and stimulation of brain,
pharmacological testing, PET, MRI, fMRI, CAT .
H. Methods in field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals
and plants, ranging patterns through direct, indirect and remote observations,
sampling methods in the study of behavior, habitat characterization-ground
and remote sensing methods.
I. Computational methods: Nucleic acid and protein sequence databases; data
mining methods for sequence analysis, web-based tools for sequence searches,
motif analysis and presentation.

 APPLICATION PROCEDURE

4. EXAMINATION CENTRES



The test will be held at 26 Centres spread all over India, as specified below:
Bangalore, Bhavnagar, Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Cochin, Delhi, Guntur, Guwahati, Hyderabad,
Imphal, Jammu, Jamshedpur, Karaikudi, Kolkata, Lucknow, Nagpur, Pilani, Pune, Raipur Roorkee, Srinagar, Thiruvananthapuram, Udaipur and Varanasi.
A candidate may opt for any of the above centres. No request for change of centre would ordinarily be granted. However, a request in writing for change of Centre may be entertained on merits, if received in this unit latest by 03.10.2011. If sufficient number of candidates do not opt for any of the above Centres, that particular Centre may stand deleted from the above list OR otherwise also, the concerned candidates may be allotted another Centre nearest to their place of residence, at the discretion of CSIR. No TA/DA will be admissible to any candidate for attending the test, in any circumstances.

5. HOW TO APPLY:

5.1. OPTION-I : APPLY THROUGH „INFORMATION BULLETIN‟:

5.1.1. BY HAND:
Candidates applying for the Test may obtain the Information Bulletin and Application forms (inclusive of fee payable) through
the branches of the Bank notified below in para 5.4 (within the prescribed dates) by paying the following fee in cash:
Sr.No. CATEGORY FEES
1. General Rs. 400/-
2. Other Backward Classes(OBC) (Non Creamy Layer) Rs. 200/-
3. SC/ST/Physically Handicapped (PH) or Visually Handicapped (VH ) Rs. 100/-

5.1.2. BY POST:
The information Bulletin and Application form may also be obtained through Value Payable Post(V.P.P.) from the Indian Bank,
3/1, West Patel Nagar, New Delhi - 110 008, by sending a crossed Demand draft for Rs. 400/-, Rs. 200/- or Rs.100/-(as the
case may be) drawn in favour of “Indian Bank, West Patel Nagar, New Delhi” payable at New Delhi. For this purpose, the
candidate should send a request to the Bank with TWO self-addressed slips clearly mentioning the address at which he/she desires the Information Bulletin & Application Form to be sent by Value Payable Post (V.P.P.) As above mentioned Bank
will entertain the request for forms through post from Tuesday, the 16th August, 2011 to Tuesday, the 30th August, 2011 only, hence, candidates are advised to send well in advance so as to reach their request within the above said period. The candidate should write his/her name, Date Of Birth, address, date of Examination (18.12.2011) and subject code on the back of the Demand Draft. However, before attaching the draft with letter of request, the candidates should check that it bears the code number of the issuing bank and drawee bank and also amount and signatures of issuing authority.

5.2. OPTION-II : APPLY THROUGH ONLINE APPLICATION:
Interested & eligible candidates may apply for this test Online through a link available at CSIR, HRDG website: www.csirhrdg.res.in. In order to apply Online the candidates are required to download Bank challan Performa from the above website and then deposit the requisite examination fee in any of the Indian Bank branches throughout the country. The examination fee for the Online application is same as mentioned in Para-5.1.1 above. Candidates after successfully submitting application online are required to take print out of the Application Form, paste his/her recent black & white photograph, put mhis/her signature at the required space, attach requisite certificates and send alongwith CSIR marked copy of fee deposited Bank Challan in an envelope to Sr. Controller of Examinations, Human Resource Development Group, Examination Unit, CSIR Complex, Library Avenue, Pusa, New Delhi-110012 so as to reach on or before 09.09.2011 (16.09.2011 for remote areas).
Online applications without hard copy or bank challan receipt or incomplete in any respect will be summarily rejected. Before applying Online, candidates are advised to go through detailed notification available at CSIR, HRDG website. Examination fee paid along with the Information Bulletin or through Bank Challan for a particular examination will neither be adjusted for any subsequent examination nor refunded under any circumstances.Candidates should also check all the columns of Bank Challan, online application, which are to be filled in properly to avoid
cancellation of application, Please note that Fee submitted by any other mode like money order, demand draft, IPO etc. will be summarily rejected.

5.3. CANDIDATE SEEKING FEE CONCESSION
The candidate should attach an attested copy of his/her category certificate as a proof of his/her claim. An application form (either through Bank or online), claiming any concession in fee & education qualification but without an attested copy of a valid SC/ST/OBC(Non Creamy Layer)/PH/VHcertificate from a competent authority and in prescribed format, will be summarily rejected.
Candidate must note that CSIR follows only Central Govt. lists and not state Govt. lists. Similarly, candidate applying under physically handicapped (PH)/ visually handicapped (VH) category may note that Govt. of India rules will be applicable in this regard.

IMPORTANT POINTS:



1. While applying for this test, please ensure that you fulfill all the eligibility conditions and follow all the laid down procedures/guidelines for this test.
2. Purchase the Information Bulletin from the designated Bank branches early enough to avoid any last minute rush.
3. While applying Online, apply early enough to avoid any last minute rush
4. Ensure that completed application Hard Copy (in case of Online application) must reach to this office within stipulated last date for receipt.
5. List of candidates registered for this will be made available on our website tentatively on 1st November, 2011. The candidates must refer to our website for checking their registration in time & for having update from time to time.
6. Admission Certificates to all the registered candidates will be dispatched three weeks before the test, if any candidate does not receive the same by 12th December, 2011; he/she must download duplicate Admission Certificate from our website. CSIR will not be responsible for any delay/non-receipt of the Admission certificate.
7. The Test Booklet for this test will be printed in Hindi & English Version separately. The candidate opting for Hindi medium in Column No. 5 of Application Form, will be supplied Question Booklet/Test Booklet printed in bilingual and Candidate opting for English medium, will be supplied Question Booklet/Test Booklet printed in English Version only. The candidate will be required to answer as per option exercised in Column No.5 of application Form.
8. For applying under “RA” category, the candidate should either has appeared or is appearing in Final year (Last Semester, where semester is there) of M.Sc. or equivalent Degree Examination during the Session 2011-1012.
For more information Download Notification CLICK HERE




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